02. February 2021

Air conditioning systems for houses and apartments

We give an overview of the types and functions of air conditioning systems.

Air conditioners for your own home

Air conditions are changed with air conditioning systems. We give a rough overview of the types and functions of air conditioning systems.

Air conditioning systems are used when room air conditions are to be changed. The two most important changes in state are the temperature and the humidity in a room.

An air conditioning system thus influences the room air as follows:

  1. Air is cooled
  2. Air is heated
  3. Air is humidified
  4. Air is dehumidified


Basic function

The functional principle of an air conditioning system is that of a classic refrigeration system. Now there are very many types and differences in this area. In this post, however, we will focus on the commercially available systems. Basically, a refrigeration and air conditioning system is used to dissipate heat. Heat is absorbed on one side and heat is given off on the other side. The absorption and release of heat takes place via heat exchangers. The energy exchange in the system takes place via a carrier such as refrigerant or brine. The compressor / compressor supplies the driving force. When absorbing heat, we speak of cooling, and when giving off heat, we speak of heating

The air conditioning system consists of several components, which are explained here:

Link:  Main components of the refrigeration system

If air is cooled down, moisture can fall below the dew point of the air. Dew or condensation forms and the air is dehumidified. The resulting condensation water or condensate must be drained away.

You can find more information on this under the article Condensation water pipe.

Link: Tauwasserleitung

Depending on how much dehumidification takes place, we change the humidity in the room with dehumidification. A clear distinction must be made between relative and absolute humidity. In the case of absolute humidity, the absolute proportion of water in g / kg as vapor in the air is an important variable. Meanwhile, the relative humidity is a percentage based on a certain amount of air. If you would like to receive more information on this, take a look here.

Link: follows

The HX diagram from Mollier is an important tool for the representation of the air conditions and their changes. It is just as important for the design of air conditioning systems for the required room situations.


Partial air conditioning systems for private use

Air conditioning systems are roughly divided into two classes. In full air conditioning systems and partial air conditioning systems. Common air conditioning systems from the retail trade for the office or the living room at home are partial air conditioning systems.

The difference lies in the number of changes in the air state that is served. Conventional air conditioning systems, which are also used in private use, seldom serve the function of humidifying the air. As soon as an air conditioning system cannot technically operate all four listed changes in state, it is referred to as partial air conditioning systems.


With air conditioning systems, heating by reversing the cycle

Air conditioning systems offer the possibility not only of cooling, but also of heating. This type of heating is becoming increasingly popular. Technically, the circuit of the refrigeration system is reversed. Heat is absorbed from the environment and given off in the room to be heated. It should be noted here that there are physical limits. From a certain outside temperature, the "heating mode" becomes uneconomical or even impossible. The limit of the lowest outside temperature is mainly determined by the refrigerant charged. How economical an air conditioning system is is described, among other things, by the COP or EER of a system.

The COP = net power / electrical drive power. For example, if the COP is "4", this simply means that with 1 kW of electrical drive power, you get a heating power of 4 kW.


Types of air conditioners

plug-in air conditioning systems

The simplest variant of an air conditioning system are compact, ready-to-use solutions. These mobile air conditioning systems can be installed quickly without having to intervene in the building itself. These systems can cool, dehumidify and ventilate. If you follow the installation instructions supplied, everyone is able to install these air conditioning systems on their own. The device is supplied with power via a standard socket.

We would like to point out possible operating errors, which must be read in the operating instructions:

  1. Laying the waste heat hose
  2. Laying the condensate hose
  3. Correct sealing of the hose lead-through to the outside air
  4. Maintain minimum clearances to walls or furnishings
  5. Note the limits of use
  6. Observe the maintenance intervals for cleaning filters or the like.


The common variant of air conditioning systems in the private sector are monosplit air conditioning systems for air conditioning a room. Multisplit air conditioning systems are used for air conditioning several rooms. Important! The installation must be carried out by a specialist. The installation includes the specialist knowledge about the correct laying of the refrigerant pipes and the condensate pipe. The professional installation of the indoor and outdoor units, the correct installation of the electrical wiring is just as important as the observance of Nevaeus and noise development.


Monosplit air conditioning systems

These partial air conditioning systems are used to air-condition a room. Only one cooling zone is served, which can be cooled, dehumidified or heated. A mono-split system consists of an indoor unit and an outdoor unit. Depending on the manufacturer, there are systems whose pipeline is already pre-installed and connected using a quick-release fastener. The systems are already pre-filled with the appropriate refrigerant. The time and installation effort is the least with this system. If the distance between the indoor and outdoor units is greater, the connection between the units via copper pipes must be individually adapted. Here, too, the systems are pre-filled and the filling quantity is sufficient for the entire system.


Multisplit air conditioning systems

These partial air conditioning systems are used when several rooms in a building are to be air-conditioned. Several indoor units can be operated on one outdoor unit. The installation effort is considerably higher with this variant.




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